They were constantly at war with each other. Not only were the Indians defeated but their weakness was exposed and India became as easy prey to other foreign powers too. The military and financial position of the empire during this period became worst to the extent that the emperor’s household troops carried off the articles from the houses of the wazirs and nobles and sold them into the market. They organized themselves into small groups known as misls. Previously, the contest for power was between the royal princes; the nobles had merely backed and sided with them. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. At the height of its power at the end of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire spanned almost the entire subcontinent and parts of present-day Afghanistan. Perhaps most worryingly for the Mughal emperor, he relied heavily on Rajput warriors, who by this time formed the backbone of his southern army and were faithful Hindus. New powers such as the Sikhs, Jats and Marathas came onto the scene. Here we will read about the Later Mughals after Aurangzeb death- Modern Indian History. He was fond of poetry and had the title of “Zafar.” He took part in the Revolt of 1857. The Sayyid brothers followed a policy of religious tolerance. Finally Roshan Akhtar, the son of Jahan Shah was placed on the throne under the title of Muhammad Shah. TOS The other reason was that the size of the Mughal empire was very wide. He granted them the sardeshmukhi of the Deccan but not the chauth. Kam Baksh too declared himself the sovereign ruler and conquered important places as Gulbarga and Hyderabad. The presentation of Nazrs (gifts involving sovereign status) was ended by Lord Hastings in 1813. In their struggle against Farrukh Siyar, the Sayyid brothers sided with the Rajput’s and the Marathas. The weak defenses of the northwest encouraged Ahmad Shah Abdali, who invaded India twice in 1749 and 1752, when he marched upto Delhi. Besides this, the Mughal rulers spent lavishly on buildings and monuments. The royal patronage that they received during the days of Akbar was now lost. Muazzam defeated both Azam at Jajau in 1707 and Kam Baksh near Hyderabad in 1708. For more than a decade, Aurangzeb appeared to be in full control. The Mughal army especially the artillery was still the most important force; administration in northern India had deteriorated but not collapsed entirely. Now they could not even go to the battlefield without their train of attendants and women. He was learned, dignified and tried to reverse some of the narrow-minded policies and measures adopted by Aurangzeb. Under Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs power reached the zenith of its glory, but his death was followed by an internal struggle for power. The Maratha sardars were still confined to the south and the Rajput’s were loyal to the Mughals. The British took control of this area in 1803. Aurangzeb died on the march,1707. But instead of supporting Nizam, the emperor suspected his own ministers. The Mughal Empire at the death of Aurangzeb comprised twenty-one Subahs, of which fourteen were in the north, six in the Deccan and one in Kabul (now Afghanistan). Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh guru, had organized the Sikhs into a military force. Muhi-ul-Milat, the grandson of KamBaksh was placed on the throne as Shah Jahan III by Imad-ul- Mulk. He plundered the royal treasury at his, own pleasure and carried back the immense wealth from India. Ali Gauhar, the son of Alamgir II became the Mughal emperor in 1759 and took up the title of Shah Alam II. But during the eighteenth century, the Rajputs became very weak due to the rise of the Sikhs, Jats and the Marathas. There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. The Indian economy was large and prosperous under the Mughal Empire. Nobles resorted to conspiracies and made the Mughal power weak and vulnerable. In order to maintain harmony, they advocated a policy of associating Hindu chiefs and nobles with Muslim nobles. 1586– after the death of Muhammad Hakim (half brother of Akbar), Kabul annexed to Mughal Empire. Privacy Policy The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb. After the dethronement of Ahmad Shah, Imad-ul-Mulk raised Azizuddin, Jahandar Shah’s son on the throne who styled himself after Aurangzeb as Alamgir II. The two brothers soon acquired dominant control over the affairs of the state. In the year 1719, six emperors were there to reign Mughal Capital.This instability led to a territorial loss of the Mughal Empire. The Marathas: With the burial of Aurangzeb Alamgir was also buried the glory and prestige of the Mughal Empire. The bankrupt Persian Empire found an easy prey in the weak Mughal rule with loose defences on the north-west frontier and used the golden opportunity. Essay on the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Very few people had anything bad to say about her and much of what we know comes from Jahanara’s own writings. He brought the entire area to the west of the Sutlej under his control. After his death Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed the wazir in 1722. 2. PreserveArticles.com is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. What are the causes of the Decline and Fall of the Mughal Empire ? Finally Farrukh was deposed and killed in 1719. Being a fanatic Sunni Muslim, he could not tolerate even the Shias. An excess of wealth and luxury made the Mughal army lazy, corrupt and inefficient. Imad ul Mulk ousted the Wazir Safdar Jang and became the wazir. Therefore, all proved worthless rulers. Ghulam Qadir (grandson of Najib and son of Zabita Khan Rohilla) occupied Delhi in 1788, blinded Shah Alam II and deposed him. The emperor, with a view to buy peace and save Delhi from devastation, ceded Punjab and Multan to Abdali. Indian History, Medieval Period, Empires, Mughal Empire, Disintegration, Disintegration of Mughal Empire. The economic stability of the empire was ruined because of the constant wars. The disunity amongst the nobles too proved an added advantage for the invaders. The Mughal Empire has been filled with remarkable women , but the most understated of them are two princesses - two sisters - who played a very crucial role during the reign of Shah Jahan and the war of succession.Princess Jahanara was the apple of her father’s eye, loved by all. There was however a deterioration in the field of administration in his reign because he lavishly granted jagirs and promotions. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. Most of them have been addicted to wine and women. The death of emperor Muhammad Shah in 1748 saw the beginning of bitter struggles among power hungry nobles of Turani and Irani factions. After his death, his disciple Banda Bahadur carried on his his struggle against the Mughals. But the succession war after Aurangzeb’s death certainly did not help matters. However, Banda was finally captured and put to death in 1715 during the reign of Farukh Siyar. The heartland of the empire lay in the north Indian Indus – Ganges plain around the cities of Delhi, Agra and Lahore. His first Wazir after the fall of the Sayyid brothers was Muhammad Amin Khan. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat.He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. The efforts made by the Sayyid brothers did not yield great results because they were constantly faced with rival factions and conspiracies in the court. After Aurangzeb, no Mughal emperor rightly deserved to be an emperor. empire in India that held power for roughly 200 years between the early 16th and early. The wars of succession became extremely fierce and destructive during the 18thcentury and resulted in great loss of life and property. Content Guidelines 2. So, the Mughal Empire collapsed under its own weight. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. After the death of Akbar II, Bahadur Shah II became the Emperor. In 1720, Hussain Ali was killed by the rebellious nobles and Abdullah Khan died in 1722 after he was defeated at Agra. He was captured and tried by the British. They first obtained a freeman to trade with India, but gradually began interfering in Indian politics and gradually set up a British empire in India that lasted for 200 years. He adopted a more tolerant attitude towards the Hindus. After the fall of the Sayyid brothers Muhammad Shah had a long reign (1719-48) to save the empire. For more than a decade, Aurangzeb appeared to be in full control. The Mughal rule was still held in high esteem by the people. But Muhammad Shah was not a good ruler. 1594– Kandhar conquered from Persia. David Ochterlony became the first resident. The anti-Sayyid nobles were strongly backed by Muhammad Shah who wanted to free him­self from the hold of the brothers. In return Shahu promised them help in the Deccan with fifteen thousand soldiers. In the end, the Mughal Empire ruled only over Delhi. We will also be discussing about the various battles like the third Panipat battle, Buxar battle, Pallasey, etc. Notes on the movements of the Marathas and Sikhs against the Mughal power. Gradually they broke off from the Mughal domination and established their own independent states. Ahmad Shah Abdali was defeated at Manpur by Ahmad Shah, the Mughal heir-apparent and Mir Mannu, the son of the deceased wazir Qamruddin. Ultimately in January 1772, Shah Alam II was reinstated at Delhi by the Marathas. The Sayyid brothers were convinced that if the real authority were in their hands the empire would be safeguarded from perishing. By 1700, the GDP of Mughal India had risen to 24% of the world economy, the largest in the world, larger than both Qing Chinaand Western Europe. He was a clever man and advocated a friendly policy towards the Rajput’s, Marathas and the Hindu chieftains not only to strengthen his own position but to ensure the survival of the empire. The financial position of the empire was also dwindling as the rebellious elements refused to pay the land tax. He carried away with him the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond and the jewel studded Peacock throne of Shahjahan. His three sons Bahadur Shah I, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Muhammad Kam Bakhsh fought each other for the throne. Now the Mughals weren’t the first Muslims in … The Mughals suffered a bit in Assam and Koch Bihar, but they gainfully invaded Arakanese lands in… But Jahandar Shah was a weak ruler and came to the throne chiefly – with the help of Zulfikar Khan, the powerful noble who as a reward was made the wazir (prime minister). Nadir Shah’s invasion inflicted a heavy damage on the Mughal Empire and its dwindling image suffered a severe blow. After the fall of Sayyid brothers he fell into the clutches of a dancing girl Koki Jiu and the eunuch Hafiz Khidmatgar Khan. The successors of Aurangzeb were both weak and incompetent. This history is seen to conclude with the achievement of independence in 1947. 3. Ajit Singh of Marwar and Jai Singh of Amber were won over by giving them high positions in the administration. He died in 1712.Henceforth a new element entered Mughal politics and the war of succession. But the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali gave the Sikhs a fresh opportunity to once again challenge the authority of the Mughals. Bahadur Shah made peace with Chhatrasal, the Bundela chief and the Jat chief Churaman who joined him in the campaign against Banda Bahadur. But by the close of the century it had shrunk to a few kilometres around Delhi. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. He thus lost the friendship and loyality of the Rajputs. Content Guidelines However the inglorious reign of Jahandar Shah soon came to an end in 1713 when he was defeated by his nephew Farrukh Siyar at Agra. No Empire could exist under the rule of such rulers. However, since it was a very successful Empire, it still took 150 more years for its definite end. 1601– Asirgargh proved to be the last conquest of Akbar’s life. These misls were twelve in number and each one had a leader. In this way, Aurangzeb defeated all his three brothers and got the throne of the Mughal Empire.Though he got the throne after a civil war with his own brothers.But the financial condition of the Mughal Empire was not good at that time. Is ‘modern’ an adequate and acceptable term to describe this period of history? Aurangzeb's policies towards the decline of Mughal empire • Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! In 1739 it was defeated by the army of the Persian shah, Nadir Shah (1688-1747). Dismember­ment of the empire began and the Marathas who were the most formidable of … This created anarchy. Wars of Succession: The Mughals did not follow any law of succession like the law of primogeniture. In another war of succession following Bahadur Shah’s death, his four sons, Jahandar Shah, Rafi-us-Shan, Azim-us-Shan and Jahan Shah became involved. Image source; globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/images/map-1600.jpg. Privacy Policy3. No Empire should exist below the rule of such rulers. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession began amongst his three surviving sons, Muazzam – the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of Gujarat, and Kam Baksh-the governor of Deccan. In Deccan, only Raja Ali Khan of Khandesh accept Mughal suzerainty. No. Although they were displeased with his … At the time of his father’s death he was in Bihar. Each one, used nobles and members of the royal family to get the throne thereby dividing the nobles who fought for their self-interest only. They were given the office of the wazir and mirbakshi respectively. Mughal India was the world leader in manufacturing, producing about 25% of the worl… After the death of every emperor, there ensued a bloody war of succession amongst his sons. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Consequently, each time a ruler died, a war of succession between the brothers for the throne started. Ajit Singh of Marwar was given the title of Maharaja and appointed the governor of Gujarat. Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the empire. He was the most pleasure-loving ruler of loose morals and is therefore called Muhammad Shah ‘Rangila’. It is rather surprising how the fragment of the Empire continued till 1857. Zulfikar Khan was soon executed by the orders of the new emperor. The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali proved fatal for the Mughal Empire. Further the murder of Farrukh Siyar created a wave of terror and repulsion against the Sayyid brothers who were looked down upon as traitors. Brief note of Shivaji and the Rise of the Marathas, Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. 18th centuries, although, technically the Mughal empire didn’t come to an end until. Nor was it one of the major reasons. Although the Government did not get much by this method, the people were ruined. But Aurangzeb was a fanatic and could not tolerate the non-Muslims. It was during the reign of Farrukh that Banda Bahadur the Sikh chief was captured and killed. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. It was not the main reason. Azam Shah declared himself successor to the throne, but was defeated in battle by Bahadur Shah. 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