Once it’s added to the atmosphere, it hangs around, for a long time: between 300 to 1,000 years. The experiment at the time supported Alexander Oparin's and J. Atmospheric Process. Atmosphere. The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time (1952) to be present on the early Earth and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. These are approximations but from NASA, 340 #W# / #m^2# is received by Earth 100 #W# / #m^2# is reflected by the clouds and ground collectively so about 240 #W# / #m^2# is absorbed into either the ground or the atmosphere. Some additional material comes from material trapped deep in the Earth, largely through volcanic activity, but this is also very small. Atmospheric processes play the lead role in determining such fundamental properties of climate as the disposition of incoming solar radiation, temperatures at the Earth's surface, the spatial distribution of water in the terrestrial biosphere, and the distribution of nutrients in the euphotic zone of the ocean. Phytoplankton (‘plant’ plankton) in surface waters absorb CO2 in photosynthesis. The main pathways to and from the atmosphere are diffusion into and out of the ocean, photosynthesis which consumes CO2 from the atmosphere (an output from the atmosphere), respiration which produces CO2 (an input to the atmosphere), and the burning of fossil fuels and biomass which also produces and input of CO2 to the atmosphere. What is energy input and output on earth? Inputs . Coastal Outputs. System feedback. Carbon circulates most rapidly between the atmosphere, oceans, living organisms and soils. Changes to our atmosphere associated with reactive gases (gases that undergo chemical reactions) like ozone and ozone-forming chemicals like nitrous oxides, are relatively short-lived. The inputs of carbon are from the atmosphere (dissolved CO2) in a direct exchange with ocean surfaces, as bicarbonate ions brought by rivers as a result of the weathering of carbonate terrestrial rocks, and a small input from subterranean volcanoes. Carbon dioxide is a different animal, however. Very, very little escapes into space. The inputs represent the flow of data and materials into the process from the outside. These transfer between 10-1000 times faster than those of the slow carbon cycle. Slow Carbon Cycle Carbon stored in rocks, sea floor sediments and fossil fuels locked away for millions of years Slow Carbon Cycle Between ten and 100 million tonnes of carbon are circulated a year Residence times in rock for carbon is around 150 million years Some carbon-rich In all study areas, the input fluxes of atmospheric deposition, accounting for 51.21%–94.74% of the total input fluxes, were significantly higher than those of fertilizer and irrigation water. The scatter plot can be a useful tool in understanding the type of relationship that exist between the inputs (X’s) and the outputs (Y’s) No Relationship: The scatter plot can give an obvious suggestion if the inputs and outputs on the graph are not related. The atmosphere directly absorbs about 23% of incoming sunlight, and the remaining energy is transferred from the Earth’s surface by evaporation (25%), convection (5%), and thermal infrared radiation (a net of 5-6%). Marine and wind erosion as well as evaporation. The Input-Output (IPO) Model is a functional graph that identifies the inputs, outputs, and required processing tasks required to transform inputs into outputs.The model is sometimes configured to include any storage that might happen in the process as well. Three input pathways and three output pathways were considered so as to figure out the heavy metal balance throughout the topsoil. The remaining thermal infrared energy from the surface (12%) passes through the atmosphere and escapes to space. The points will be scattered throughout the graph with no particular pattern. Landforms of erosion – cracks, caves, stacks, stumps, wave-cut platforms, blowholes Landforms of deposition – beaches, spits, tombolos, sand dunes, salt marshes. If inputs and outputs within a coastal system are the same then a state of equilibrium exists. The atmosphere is largely a closed system. , living organisms and soils the remaining thermal infrared energy from the (! 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